Science & social responsibility in public health

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Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end

Public health ethics is on the map. In the past year, bioethicists and public health practitioners have begun to focus their critical attention on this complex and understudied topic. Much remains to be done. Childress et al. (2002), for example, describe their account of public health ethics as a rough conceptual map of a terrain with undefined boundaries.

Our focus will be on the responsibilities of epidemiologists, a choice made for several compelling reasons. Epidemiology sits at the center of the science and practice of environmental health, and more generally, at the center of public health. Although it is often referred to as a basic science of public health, epidemiology connects the acquisition of scientific knowledge with its application in preventive interventions, programs, and policies. This connection suggests a fundamental question: What are our responsibilities as epidemiologists? Do we, for example, have a joint responsibility to participate in science and to apply the knowledge gained? This is a key concern for us as researchers, health professionals, and as teachers.

The social responsibility of public health professionals is but one of many concerns in the broader picture of public health ethics. It is nevertheless a central concern. As Ogletree (1996) reminds us, responsibility is a concept particularly well suited to flame many key aspects of the ethics of professions faced with making decisions and taking actions in complex situations. These decisions often involve advanced technologies, high levels of specialization, and overlapping areas of expertise and concern among decision makers from diverse educational, political, and social backgrounds, precisely the situation in contemporary epidemiology and public health. In sum, responsibility organizes many (although not all) of public health’s ethical issues in terms appropriate for professional practitioners.

Responsibility has a deeper meaning as well, corresponding to commitment. To be responsible means to be committed to someone or to some thing. Being responsible in this deeper sense involves a commitment to positive action, to the pursuit and achievement of something of value, such as a social good (Jonas 1984). We will return to the notion of social goods in public health. For now, we want to emphasize that responsibility focuses attention on professional commitments

Finally, our inquiry is intended to assist all public health researchers who seek to define their social responsibilities. For those who are involved primarily in environmental health research, we can think of at least two connected and current topics–environmental justice and community-based participatory research.

Is technology making social anxiety worse

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I love video games, I love my computer, and I love my flat screen, but I find myself wondering sometimes if technology is making social anxiety worse. Has the convenience that technology has given to us also hindered us from overcoming social anxiety as a whole? Has technology made overcoming social anxiety even more difficult by placing a virtual barrier between human interaction and physical contact?

We can research and make friends with people online, but there is a lack of human interaction. The advantage of being online is that you can find a community to help you with whatever problem you have, but the disadvantage is the lack of action. We start using the internet as our outlet to being social. There is a huge lack of “real” interaction. We can sit at home and keep ourselves entertained with the hundreds of channels we have. We can live our vicariously through the character we play on video games, hell we can even pay our bills online so we don’t have to interact with another human being.

I love the benefits that are given to us because of technology, don’t get me wrong. I think it’s great that I can do everything I listed above. I love the fact that I can save time and money by sitting at home. I think technology can help and hurt you at the same time.

The way that I figure it, technology is like a fine wine. Doctors say, for the time being anyway, that a glass of wine a day is good for you. On the other hand, If you drink too much, it can kill brain cells and also can cause liver problems. Technology, like wine, can affect your relationships if you take in too much of it and let it control your life.

I think it’s outstanding that I have friends from all over the world that I’ve never met and probably never will, but I think it can also stunt your growth when it comes to getting past the reality of shyness and social anxiety. I realize that technology is a tool we can use to reach out to others but we need to use it wisely and apply what we learn with it, to the outside world. We have to make sure we don’t use technology as a crutch to avoid physical social interaction.

Two Oled Technologies Amoled And Pmoled

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OLED is a new technology that can make thin, efficient and bright displays. OLEDs are made from organic light-emitting materials, and OLEDs do not require any backlight and filtering systems that are used in LCDs. So OLEDs are more simple to make and actually can be made flexible and transparent as well. OLEDs are also very efficient, and companies are working towards OLED lighting – an OLED “lightbulb” will be efficient and thin, opening the way for great new lighting designs.

There are two types of OLEDs used in displays – PMOLED and AMOLED. The difference is in the driving electronics – it can be either Passive Matrix (PM) or Active Matrix (AM).

With Passive-Matrix OLEDs, the display is controlled by switching on rows and columns. When you turn on row number x and column number y, the pixel at the intersection is lit – and emits light. Each time you can choose just one pixel to light. So you have to turn these on and off very quickly. You do so in a certain sequence, and create the desired image. This is somewhat like the interlace-system used in old CRTs, but the control is done pixel-by-pixel.

PMOLEDs are very easy and cheap to build, but they are limited to small sizes (up to 3″, typically). The image displaying is a bit complicated (because of the row/column method). Also the power consumption is not as good as AMOLEDs.

AMOLEDs have a different driver electronics – each pixel is controlled directly. AMOLEDs are more expensive, and much more difficult to create, but can be used for larger displays (current prototypes are up to 40″) and are very power efficient.

The first OLED products in the market used PMOLEDs – these were MP3 players, sub-displays on cellphones and radio decks for automobiles. The displays were small and usually with just one or two colors. When AMOLED panels started to emerge in 2007 and 2008 we have seen these larger displays in mobile video players, digital cameras, mobile phones main displays and even OLED TVs.

PMOLEDs are still very popular – there are more MP3 player sold today with PMOLED than with LCDs. But for larger displays, AMOLED is the best technology, and is growing much more quickly than PMOLED displays. Obviously for larger displays, such as TV, laptop monitors or PDAs, AMOLED is the only choice.

Today there are several companies that are working on technologies that actually close the gap between PMOLEDs and AMOLEDs – offering a sort of hybrid system. The promise is that these displays will be both easy to make and allow power efficient larger displays. We still have to wait and see whether these technologies actually work on commercial displays. One such technology is Dialog’s SmartXtend.

Volcano Science Projectextreme

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Everyone has heard of the classic volcano science project using vinegar, baking soda, and a little bit of red food coloring. This little experiment, however, is a little more extreme, and a little more realistic (do not worry, it is not actually dangerous!). This guide will teach you how to create a volcano project that really erupts with some force.
Unfortunately, the fake lava is not going to be quite so realistically red, but sometimes compromise means sacrifices! Here we go:
Gather your building supplies. For this project, you are going to need to start with a volcano. A prepackaged paper mache kit is recommended. Next, you need a two-liter bottle of diet cola. Use your paper mache kit to build a mountainous, volcanic structure around the bottle, leaving a hole at the top large enough to facilitate opening the soda bottle. Give your paper mache plenty of time to dry before you attempt the next step, or else you will end up with a sticky mess on your hands.
Paint your volcano. This is where you can get pretty creative, even though most volcanic mountains look pretty much the same. You can go for the standard black and brown color of rocks and dirt, or you can get a little artsy. Why not make a tie-dye themed volcano? It is just a science experiment, and science should be fun! After applying your paint, make sure that it is completely dry before you begin the next stage: Explosion!
Now it is time to add the trigger to the equation. Go to your local convenience store and buy a roll of mint Mentos. It is very important that you buy these in particular, as nothing else will work correctly.
Ready your presentation in a clear, outdoor space (trust me; you do not want this volcano erupting indoors!). Carefully take the cap off your diet cola, which, if you have followed directions, should be housed securely in your paper mache volcano. Commence with a dramatic countdown, and at its conclusion, drop a couple of the Mentos into the cola.
ERUPTION!
This is a fun experiment to do at school or at home, but if you are planning to attempt it, there are a few safety precautions to take. The reaction of the cola to the mints is very strong, and you definitely do not want to put your face near the opening of the soda bottle for the initial eruption. It is recommended that you wear goggles or some type of protective eyewear if you are going to be the one tossing the mints in the soda. Other than that, enjoy the spectacle!

Environmental Science And Its’ Components

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These days there is there is a lot buzz about the world going green and preserving the environment. Well, I think that all of you might be reading something or the other about “environment and ecology” in newspaper, magazines or over the internet. So, let me throw light on this topic.

Environmental Science is the scientific study of the ways in which biological, physical and chemical components of the environment interact and the relations between them. Environmental science and ecology are overlapped but different science disciplines.

Environmental science and ecology are overlapped but different science disciplines. Ecology is the study of the interactions of living organisms with their environments, including relationship with other organisms. Environmental science is multidisciplinary in nature and provides a broad area of study of environmental systems integrating both biological and physical concepts with an interdisciplinary approach.

Components of Environmental Science:

Atmospheric Sciences examine the phenomenology of the Earth’s gaseous outer layer with emphasis upon interrelation to other systems. Atmospheric sciences comprise meteorological studies, greenhouse gas phenomena, and atmospheric dispersion modeling of airborne contaminants, noise pollution, and even light pollution.

Ecology studies typically analyze the dynamics of biological populations and some aspect of their environment.

Due to the interdisciplinary nature of environmental science, teams of professionals commonly work together to conduct environmental research or to produce Environmental Impact Statements. Environmental science encompasses issues such as climate change, conservation, biodiversity, water quality, groundwater contamination, soil contamination, and use of natural resources, waste management, sustainable development, disaster reduction, air pollution, and noise pollution.

Geosciences include environmental geology, environmental soil science, volcanic phenomena and evolution of the Earth’s crust. In some classification systems it can also embrace hydrology including oceanography.

Well, above is a brief overview about Environmental Science and its’ machinery. Having a sound knowledge about our environment will certainly help us to protect Nature, which is the “Gift of God” to mankind.

Current Science Article Stem Cell Research in the Spotlight Once Again

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Recent discoveries about the role of stem cells in cancer have altered the landscape of cancer research, says Medical News Today. There is, however, a long-running philosophical rift over stem cell research at both the state and federal levels. Some groups would rather focus on adult stem cell research, avoiding the moral and ethical questions about research involving embryos. While ethical debate on human embryonic stem cells will continue, much more is occurring on the rings surrounding this bull’s-eye issue, including research in both drug development and adult stem cells.

Biologists’ understanding of new sources and uses of adult and nonembryonic stem cells is advancing rapidly. Called “niches” or “crypts,” it seems that almost anyplace one looks in the body (nose, eye, hair follicle, intestine, bone marrow, central nervous system), stem cells are being found. From such basic knowledge, it has been reported that successful animal and human therapy using patient stem cells is already occurring. As more stem cell crypts are discovered, the desire to understand how to manipulate them within the body only becomes more acute.

At the 2007 Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, researchers presented new discoveries about stem cells in leukemia, breast and colon cancer that add to the growing evidence that perhaps cancer is, fundamentally, a stem cell problem.

Interviewed by Vision Magazine at the Stem Cells World Congress earlier this year in La Jolla, California, veterinarian and CEO of Vet-Stem, Robert Harmon, explained how his company is currently providing stem cell therapies for animals. Injected into an injury or degenerated tissue, the stem cell treatment evokes healing in unprecedented ways. As it has been since its discovery almost 400 years ago, the cell and the “vital force” that makes it the seat of biological life continues to hold attention. It is likely that there will be no end to the moral and ethical questions and investigations. Today’s new age of molecular understanding, genomics, proteomics, gene splicing and bioengineering is barely underway. It is not surprising, then, that the more we know, the more we recognize how little we understand.

The timeline of discovery has been exponential: from discovery of the DNA double helix in 1953, and the understanding of the genetic code, gene splicing and cell differentiation in the 60s, 70s and 80s, science rapidly jumped up the learning curve to the cloning of whole organisms and the discovery of embryonic stem cells less than a decade ago. The future possibilities for the application of this knowledge seem enormous.

Read the full article about Stem Cell Research and interviews with speakers at the Stem Cells World Conference at Vision.org.

Go Green! Earth Science Fair Projects

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Earth Science Fair Projects

Governments around the world along with private organization and companies are converging and discussing the environmental issues that are facing our planet. These international meetings are attended and lead by some of the greatest minds in the area of ecological sustainability. These leaders have spent their professional careers researching and implementing programs and policies to protect and repair the environment. They did not, however, wake up one day with all these qualifications in their heads. They have spent years and decades studying and researching their chosen field of specialty. Like other professionals, they began their careers as students. Many of these professionals are the very students who began their studies with earth science fair projects demonstrations. This was likely the first demonstration of their ability and desire to understand the systems and life forms with which we share the planet.

Earth science fair projects are the perfect venue for students who want to pursue a career in any number of environmental fields. The earth science fair projects of students often become the focus of their career goals. For those students interested in plant life, an earth science fair project on the growth of food crops might be in order. Students who are interested in the cycles of weather, and earth science fair project would be appropriate. Others who are interested in the history and origins of the very planet upon which we live could develop an earth science fair project around this huge topic. Regardless of the specific topic, earth science fair projects offer all students the opportunity to demonstrate their beginning knowledge of these important topics.

Many of the students who present earth science fair projects have plans on continuing their education at the college and postgraduate levels. These students often take the seed of interest that is planted with their first earth science fair projects and continue the studies at these higher educational levels. There are even professional who started at the high school science fair and were offered tuition and scholarships to continue their research. All the international professionals began as students, so the possibilities exist for all students interested in these fields of study. With these opportunities, students can transform their careers while transforming our stewardship of the Earth.

What are the business benefits of NFC mobile phone technology

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Near Field Communications, or NFC, is a new technology with unlimited applications.

NFC uses RFID technology built in to the latest generation of mobile phones to scan or swipe small RFID tags, which can be placed just about anywhere. Tags can be programmed to trigger different actions when they are swiped by phones.

Many businesses or organisations have field based operations that need managing in real time. NFC technology gives these businesses leading edge management capability.

NFC can be used in a diverse array of industries with mobile staff, mobile assets, or multiple sites and locations. Because NFC technology uses readily available NFC enabled mobile phones and inexpensive tags, it can be applied anywhere, and by any type of field personnel.

The key benefits of NFC technology for businesses with a field based operation include:

1. NFC is Easy to Use

Using NFC technology is so simple, it’s accessible to just about anyone.

All that’s needed to run NFC operations in the field are RFID tags which can be situated in key locations, and NFC-enabled mobile phones.

For field operations staff, using Over-C NFC technology is simplicity itself. Just tough a tag with a phone, and that’s it. An automated NFC management system then does the rest, recording the time and location of staff, and sending them any special information or data they may need on their NFC enabled mobile phone.

2. NFC Improves Communication

NFC is an extremely effective way of improving two way communications between managers and their staff in the field.

Whenever a field operative touches an NFC tag with their mobile phone the operational management team receive an instant and verifiable confirmation of the location of field staff. Field staff can benefit from automated reporting, which saves time and improves accuracy.

3. NFC Enables Real Time Management

NFC technology lets businesses operate and respond in real time.

When an NFC tag is touched by a mobile phone, notification is in seconds, so operations managers always know exactly where their field personnel are, and what they are doing.

NFC allows businesses to streamline the way people work at, and report from, remote locations. It also allows field based personnel to focus on what they do best, whilst managers benefit from greater visibility in field operations.

4. NFC Improves Customer Service

NFC technology actively helps businesses to deliver enhanced customer service.

Data reporting by field operations staff becomes faster, more efficient and more accurate.

Field operations managers can use this real time data to generate customer reports and measure results faster than ever before – and faster than their competitors.

In fact, using NFC technology in a business can give it a commercial edge to help it gain and retain high value clients.

Magnets 4 Energy Review – Easy Vitality Production Technologies

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Have you actually appeared with the soaring expenses of electricity and wondered if there was something you could do about it? Magnets four Strength puts the foreseeable future of strength era directly as part of your palms. This comprehensive kit will instruct you how to assemble your own magnet powered generator which is highly effective plenty of to run your entire household, still isn’t going to value a dime to operate. It is possible to free yourself from the strong vitality organizations and use your income about the factors you want and have to have instead.

1. The Reality Behind Magnet Technological Innovation.

Magnets four Vitality will indicate you that magnet engineering is legitimate, and it has become all around for many a long time. The creator of this electricity data kit was once employed with the Pentagon and he’s seen administration organizations and also the army placed magnetic strength making technologies to utilize numerous times. His guidebook explains why the government wants to keep this powerful technologies out from the palms of shoppers, although it could use a substantial influence about the depletion in the Globe’s organic solutions.

2. You Can Generate Your Own Personal Electrical Power.

You’ll learn by way of the Magnets 4 Power guidebook precisely tips on how to construct your personal magnet powered generator. The guidebook involves information that train you the best way to adjust your generator to put together a lot more electrical power if you require it and much less once you really don’t. It also explains how you may be sure that the strength organization reimburses you for your excess power that you choose to produce. This guide seriously does placed energy manufacturing straight in the palms of the shopper.

3. Plans Are Simple To Stick To.

Even should you’ve hardly ever held a hammer, you will be capable to assemble your generator making use of the uncomplicated instructions in Magnets four Electricity. It consists of lists of provides and suggestions for areas to purchase them. It has diagrams and drawings that display you what your system really should glance like by way of all stages of making. The information’s easy to examine, action by move details will provide you with the assurance to build your generator easily and put it to use right away. Magnet electrical power could be the vitality of the long term, and Magnets 4 Power is how you are able to achieve it.

Curtain Walling Metal Technology

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Curtain walling metal technology refers to a system of curtain walling that is developed and designed by Metal Technology, a reputed name in window and door systems. It is suitable for high rise and low rise applications.

Windows and doors manufactured by curtain walling metal technology are attractive and have clean lines which are capable to enhance all types of office and commercial facades as demanded by modern building technology.

The Metal Technology high rise curtain wall system is designed as a stick system by curtain walling metal technology. This type of design allows mullions and transoms to be transported to site as prepared components and the grid work is assembled onto the building in stick form.

Carefully designed fixing brackets allow the curtain walling to be fixed back to the structure easily and securely so that all loads are transferred back to the buildings main structural form. Expansion joints are allowed on every floor or every other floor to accommodate any building movement by curtain walling metal technology.

In a case where curtain walling is required for low rise developments curtain walling metal technologys system 8 low rise curtain walling is preferred. Being a metal technology, it is obvious that this kind of curtain walling systems are manufacturing is to exacting standards giving economy with required strength, and many years of aesthetic, trouble-free operation.

In order to help flood the buildings with light, curtain walling metal technology has used System 17 high rise curtain wall, along with its Latitude curtain walling, System 8 low rise and System 10 glazed doors.

Metal Technology’s curtain walling systems offer a wide range of caps and profiles that allow the designer to select a profile to meet the design requirements of the project.

For example, curtain walling metal technology offers the Latitude system which particularly gives a strong horizontal focus and is excellent in drawing attention and drama to a glass elevation.

Curtain walling metal technology also can design and supply bespoke profile options giving the architect greater scope in his design.

Metal Technology has a wide retail portfolio with blue chip clients such as Asda, Tecso, Homebase etc in many parts of the UK and Ireland.